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MOSTLY MICROBES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Welcome to Mostly Microbes and Infectious Diseases. David Ojcius posts newspaper and journal articles in the broad field of microbiology.

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What triggers severe COVID? Infected immune cells hold clues

Two studies show that immune cells infected with #SARSCoV2 can stimulate a large inflammatory response via #inflammasome activation. In mice, drugs that inhibit inflammasomes save mice from severe #COVID19 pathology. #inflammation #immunology #coronavirus Immune cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 can trigger a massive inflammatory response that contributes to severe COVID-19, suggest two papers — one published today in Nature, and a preprint posted online on 1 April. Since the ea

Gut barrier disruption and chronic disease

Highlights Maintenance of gut barrier integrity is indispensable for health as the #gut barrier protects the host against gut microbes, food antigens, and toxins. Many factors such as enteric #infection, #antibiotics, low-fiber diets, #circadian rhythm disruption, and psychological #stress can affect gut barrier integrity and lead to systemic, low-grade #inflammation due to translocation of bacteria and their components. While the body can resist transient gut barrier disrupt

Large-scale genomic study reveals robust activation of immune system following meditation retreat

A large-scale genomic study reveals robust activation of the immune system following #meditation retreat. Importantly, the study demonstrated that meditation enhanced #immunity without activating #inflammation. Significance Several studies on the impact of #yoga and #meditation on mental and physical health have demonstrated beneficial effects. However, the potential molecular mechanisms and critical genes involved in this beneficial outcome have yet to be comprehensively el

Fermented foods show potential in increasing gut microbial diversity and modulating immune responses

Fermented foods, such as #yogurt, #kefir, #kimchi & #kombucha, have gained increasing popularity on the market shelves. Scientists elucidate how fermented foods may alter gut #microbiota profile & reduce #inflammation. During the past decade, a thriving scientific interest has been raised in exploring the gut microbiome of non-westernized populations. The growing realization of the fundamental role that urbanization is playing in human health and disease, especially in non-c

The Brain Can Recall and Reawaken Past Immune Responses

Researchers identified #brain neurons in mice that became active during experimentally induced #inflammation in the abdomen. Later, restimulating those neurons can trigger the same types of inflammation again. Dogs that habitually hear a bell at chow time become classically conditioned to drool at the mere chime, as the physiologist Ivan Pavlov showed in the 1890s: Their brains learn to associate the bell with food and instruct the salivary glands to respond accordingly. More

Rheumatoid arthritis linked with gut bacteria imbalance

New research suggests that bacterial imbalances in the gut #microbiome may play a role in the development of #rheumatoidarthritis. The preclinical study found damage to the gut lining directly correlates with joint #inflammation & #arthritis severity New research led by a team from University College London is suggesting bacterial imbalances in the gut microbiome may play a major role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. The preclinical study found damage to the gut li

Phospholipases A2 as biomarkers in ARDS

#Phospholipases #ARDS #sepsis #inflammation Abstract ARDS is a multifactorial life-threatening lung injury, characterized by diffuse lung inflammation and increased alveolocapillary barrier permeability. The different stages of ARDS have distinctive biochemical and clinical profiles. Despite the progress of our understanding on ARDS pathobiology, the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still obscure. Herein, we review the existing literature about the implications of p

The Longest-Living People in the World Eat These 4 Anti-Inflammatory Spices Every Day

The Longest-Living People in the World Eat These 4 Anti-Inflammatory Spices Every Day #inflammation #aging #longevity #turmeric #blackpepper #garlic #ginger The five Blue Zones regions are known for being home to the longest-living people in the world. In these areas, people not only regularly live into the triple digits, but their brains and bodies are both still functioning well. There are many lifestyle factors that Blue Zones founder, Dan Buettner, has found are shared by

The Covid vaccine is much safer than catching the coronavirus, study in Israel finds

A study with ~2 million people in Israel shows Pfizer #COVID19 vaccine slightly raises risk of heart inflammation & swollen lymph nodes. But that Covid-19 raises the risk of heart #inflammation even more & it raises the risk of blood clots, heart attacks. A large study involving close to 2 million people in Israel shows the Pfizer/BioNTech coronavirus vaccine slightly raises the risk of heart inflammation, swollen lymph nodes and shingles. But it also finds that Covid-19 infe

‘Inflammation clock’ can reveal body’s biological age

Using machine learning, researchers create an ‘inflammatory clock of aging’ (iAGE) that shows the biological age of our immune system. #aging #inflammation A new type of age ‘clock’ can assess chronic inflammation to predict whether someone is at risk of developing age-related disorders such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease. The clock measures ‘biological age’, which takes health into consideration and can be higher or lower than a person’s chronological age. T

First actionable clock that predicts immunological health and chronic diseases of aging

Researchers from the Buck Institute and Stanford University have created an inflammatory clock of aging (iAge) which measures inflammatory load and predicts multi-morbidity, frailty, immune health, cardiovascular #aging and is also associated with exceptional longevity in centenarians. Utilizing deep learning, a form of #AI, in studies of the blood immunome of 1001 people, researchers also identified a modifiable chemokine associated with cardiac aging which can be used for e

Europe finds potential link between heart inflammation and mRNA COVID shots

European Union finds a possible link between very rare heart #inflammation (myocarditis & pericarditis) & #COVID19 mRNA vaccines from Pfizer & Moderna, stressing that the benefits of the shots outweighed any risks. Europe's drug regulator has found a possible link between very rare heart inflammation and COVID-19 vaccines from Pfizer-BioNTech (PFE.N), (22UAy.DE) and Moderna (MRNA.O), it said on Friday, stressing that the benefits of the shots outweighed any risks. The conditi

Lycopene attenuates Staphylococcus aureus-induced inflammation via inhibiting alpha-Hemolysin

Lycopene attenuates #Staphylococcus aureus-induced #inflammation via inhibiting α-Hemolysin expression #MRSA Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of Lycopene in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (USA 300)-induced inflammation and to elucidate the potential mechanism of its action. The direct effect of Lycopene on S. aureus USA300 growth was determined via growth curves assay, and α-Hemolysin (Hla) release of S. aureus USA300 using hemolysis assay. Furt

Engineered yeast probiotic developed to treat inflammatory bowel disease

Researchers engineer a yeast #probiotic that has the ability to sense #Inflammation & secrete an anti-inflammatory molecule. Goal is to treat inflammatory bowel disease (#IBD). The world of microbes living in the human gut can have far-reaching effects on human health. Multiple diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are tied to the balance of these microbes, suggesting that restoring the right balance could help treat disease. Many probiotics—living yeasts or b

Extreme Calorie Restriction Can Increase Dangerous Bacteria in The Gut, Study Shows

New research shows that very-low-calorie diets can significantly alter the gut #microbiome, leading to increased levels of the pathogenic bacterium #Clostridioides difficile, known to be a cause of severe #diarrhea & #inflammation in the gut. While the subjects in the study didn't show any signs of these health problems, the presence of more C. difficile raises some important questions about how our intestinal microbiomes are linked to weight loss. For the purposes of the stu

With age, insufficient tryptophan alters gut microbiota, increases inflammation

With #aging, a diet lacking in the essential amino acid #tryptophan -- which has a key role in our mood, energy level and immune response -- makes the gut #microbiome less protective and increases #inflammation body-wide, investigators report. In a normally reciprocal relationship that appears to go awry with age, sufficient tryptophan, which we consume in foods like milk, turkey, chicken and oats, helps keep our #microbiota healthy. A healthy microbiota in turn helps ensure

Researchers find signs of inflammation in brains of people who died of COVID-19

A detailed molecular analysis of tissue from the brains of individuals who died of #COVID19 reveals extensive signs of #inflammation & #neurodegeneration, but no sign of the #coronavirus that causes the disease. The most comprehensive molecular study to date of the brains of people who died of COVID-19 turned up unmistakable signs of inflammation and impaired brain circuits. Investigators at the Stanford School of Medicine and Saarland University in Germany report that what t

This mushroom might alter gut bacteria for the better, study finds

A mushroom a day may keep the doctor away. The active ingredients in a Asian mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine (#TCM) can change bacteria in your stomach for the better, researchers have found. By altering gut bacteria, the #Reishi mushroom (#Ganoderma lucidum, #lingzhi #靈芝) prevents and reverses symptoms of #obesity in mice, including weight gain and insulin resistance. “Mice kept on a high-fat diet gained up to 25 percent more than mice kept on the same diet wit

Senolytics reduce coronavirus-related mortality in old mice

#senescence #COVID19 #coronavirus #aging #inflammation Targeting senescent cells using senolytic drugs before or after coronavirus exposure significantly reduced mortality, cellular senescence, & inflammatory markers & increased anti-viral antibodies in old mice. The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the pronounced vulnerability of the elderly and chronically-ill to SARS-CoV-2-induced morbidity and mortality. Cellular senescence contributes to inflammation, multiple chronic dise

Cause or effect? The spatial organization of pathogens and the gut microbiota in disease

#microbiota #microbiome #infectiousdisease #microbiology #inflammation The human gut hosts a dense and diverse microbial community, spatially organized by multiple scales of structure. Here, we review how microbial organization differs between health and disease. We describe how changes in spatial organization may induce alterations in gut homeostasis, concluding with a future outlook to reveal causality. Free article. Read more at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/artic

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