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MOSTLY MICROBES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Welcome to Mostly Microbes and Infectious Diseases. David Ojcius posts newspaper and journal articles in the broad field of microbiology.

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The Human Microbiome Might Be Contagious

The largest & most diverse review to date has found evidence that who you live with & who you were raised by could have a greater impact on your #microbiome than some lifestyle factors, age, or even genetics. The community of people living around you could influence the community of microbes living inside of you. The largest and most diverse review to date has found evidence that who you live with and who you were raised by could have a greater impact on your microbiome than

How our microbiome is shaped by family, friends and even neighbors

People living in same household or in regular contact tend to have same microbes in their guts & mouths. The study raises possibility that diseases linked to #microbiome dysfunction, including #cancer, #diabetes & #obesity, could be partly transmissible. People living in the same household share more than just a roof (and pints of milk). Be they family or flatmate, housemates tend to have the same microbes colonizing their bodies, and the longer the cohabitation, the more sim

Biomarkers predict weight loss, suggest personalized diets

A new yearlong weight-loss study has identified behaviors & biomarkers that contribute to short- & long-term #weightloss. The biomarkers include signatures from the gut #microbiome, proteins made by the human body & levels of exhaled carbon dioxide. A new analysis of data from a yearlong weight-loss study has identified behaviors and biomarkers that contribute to short- and long-term weight loss. Strictly following a diet - either healthy low-carb or healthy low-fat - wa

Evidence of Horizontal Gene Transfer Between Human Maternal Microbiome and Infant Gut Microbiome

A new model of vertical #microbiome transmission between mother and child has been reported. Researchers say microbes in the maternal gut share genes with those in the infant’s gut during the perinatal period directly following birth up to a few weeks postbirth. Researchers have discovered a new mode of vertical mother-to-infant microbiome transmission, where microbes in the maternal gut shared genes with microbes in the infant gut during the perinatal period starting immedia

What Are Prebiotics And How Do They Work?

And how do #prebiotics differ from #probiotics? Experts weigh in on how these trendy supplements may influence your well-being. #microbiota #microbiome #bacteria #prebiotic #probiotic Browse the aisles of any health food store or drugstore, and you’re likely to find prebiotic supplements. They’re packaged as powders, gummies, pills and drinks and claim to improve digestion, boost the immune system, lower blood sugar and more. According to Grand View Research, a market researc

Your microbiome ages as you do—and that’s a problem

Study found that gut #microbiome changes with age, & that it loses aspects of a general core microbiome & strays toward a more individual one. But this isn’t necessarily a good thing. This uniqueness seems to be linked to unhealthy #aging. We’re all crawling with bugs. Our bodies are home to plenty of distinct ecosystems that are home to microbes, fungi, and other organisms. They are crucial to our well-being. Shifts in the microbiome have been linked to a whole host of disea

Disruption of gut microbial balance is associated with increased mortality after kidney, liver trans

Scientists studied fecal samples from >1,000 recipients of kidney & liver transplants to learn how gut #microbiome impacts post-#transplant survival. Gut microbiome dysbiosis was associated with increased mortality after solid organ transplantation. Scientists studied fecal samples from >1,000 recipients of kidney & liver transplants to learn how gut microbiome impacts post-transplant survival. Gut microbiome dysbiosis was associated with increased mortality after solid org

Genomic time machine: From sponge microbiome, insights into evolutionary past

Researchers characterized ~100 sponge species from the Caribbean to study the sponges' unique microbiomes. They found two distinct #microbiome compositions that led to different strategies for feeding & protecting themselves against predators. Sponges in coral reefs, less flashy than their coral neighbors but important to the overall health of reefs, are among the earliest animals on the planet. New research from UNH peers into coral reef ecosystems with a novel approach to u

Eating specially-colored muffins could reveal whether you have inflammatory bowel disease

Eating blue muffins can reveal health of gut #microbiome. Eating a muffin dyed blue could reveal your gut transit time, which may help diagnose your gut health & act as an early warning. Gut transit times varied from ~ 12 hrs to > 72 hrs in a study. #microbiota #health If you ever wanted an excuse to bake a bunch of muffins, you're in luck... just make sure they're blue. Experts believe eating the specially-coloured treats may provide a warning sign of poor gut health. If th

Do oral bacteria play a role in hypertension?

Researchers found an association between the oral #microbiota and the risk of #hypertension in people who have experienced menopause. Specific bacteria were associated with both baseline blood pressure and the risk of developing hypertension. #oralhealth #heart #heartdisease #microbiology #microbiome Almost half of adults in the United States have high blood pressure, or hypertension. People with hypertension have an increased risk of stroke and heart disease. The researchers

Review on association of fungi with development and progression of carcinogenesis in the human body

Highlights •Long-term #Candida infection contributes to #oralcancer development. •Candida species contribute to tumor induction along the gastrointestinal tract through production of carcinogenic nitrosamines. •Voriconazole is involved in the development of squamous cell carcinoma in lung transplant patients. #cancer #mycobiota #microbiota #microbiome #oralhealth Abstract The role and impact of commensal and pathogenic fungi in different parts of the human body are being inc

Researchers identify new bacteria and viruses in human skin

Researchers identify new bacteria & viruses in the human skin #microbiome. Study reveals 174 previously unknown bacterial species, 4 new eukaryotes & 20 new jumbo phage. These viruses have a genome of >200 kilobases (3 to 5 times that of the average virus). Data representing a variety of microorganisms found in the human skin microflora. Credits: Karen Arnott / EMBL Researchers and colleagues at EMBL’s European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), National Institutes of Heal

Dietary fiber and probiotics influence the gut microbiome and melanoma immunotherapy response

Dietary fiber & probiotics influence the gut #microbiome & melanoma #immunotherapy response Melanoma patients reporting high fiber (prebiotic) consumption had better response to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy than patients reporting a low-fiber diet. Another benefit of dietary fiber The gut microbiome can modulate the immune system and influence the therapeutic response of cancer patients, yet the mechanisms underlying the effects of microbiota are presently unclear. Spe

Oral and gut microbes can inactivate an antidiabetic drug

Researchers discovered that the oral & gut #microbiome can inactivate the antidiabetic drug #acarbose, which may affect the drug's efficacy in some #diabetes patients. A microbiome-encoded enzyme, called Mak1, modifies acarbose, causing its inactivation. Acarbose is a commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug that helps control blood sugar levels by inhibiting human enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates. Now, new research from the laboratory of Princeton researcher Mohame

Gut bacterial communities of wild black capuchin monkeys from the Atlantic Forest biome in Brazil

#microbiome #microbiota #biome Fecal bacterial communities of wild black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) from the Atlantic Forest biome in Southern Brazil are divergent from those of other non-human primates Highlights •Identification of gut microbiota of Brazilian wild black capuchin monkeys. •Monkeys from two fragments of the Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil reveal specific gut bacterial communities. •In contrast to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes predominant in no

Microbiome et santé

de Chih-Jung Chang, Yun-Fei Ko, Hsin-Chih Lai, Jan Martel, David Ojcius, John D. Young #microbiome #microbiota #health #microbiology Notre corps abrite une communauté complexe de milliards de microbes, surtout des bactéries, mais aussi des virus, levures et protozoaires, un nombre à peu près équivalent à celui des cellules humaines. Dans des conditions normales, cette population vit en équilibre avec l’organisme et joue plusieurs rôles physiologiques importants pour notre san

Microbiote de la bouche

de Sylvie Babajko, David Ojcius, Ihsène Taihi-Nassif #microbiome #microbiota #oralhealth La cavité buccale est une partie du corps en interface directe et variable avec l’environnement. Organe de communication (phonation, mimiques, esthétique…), elle est aussi indispensable à de nombreuses fonctions vitales comme la circulation de l’air, la mastication, la salivation… Porte d’entrée des voies aériennes supérieures et du système digestif, elle joue un rôle important pour celui

Gut Bacteria Change as You Get Older—and May Accelerate Aging

A study finds that #aging is associated with #microbiome changes, & that these alterations are distinct from those connected to diseases or medication use. The body’s constellation of gut bacteria has been linked with various aging-associated illnesses, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Now a study has found that aging itself is associated with microbiome changes, and that these alterations are distinct from those connected to diseases or medication use. T

Age and aging have critical effects on the gut microbiome

Researchers have found that #aging produces significant changes in the #microbiome of the human small intestine distinct from those caused by medications or illness burden. Researchers at Cedars-Sinai have found that aging produces significant changes in the microbiome of the human small intestine distinct from those caused by medications or illness burden. The findings have been published in the journal Cell Reports. "By teasing out the microbial changes that occur in the sm

Rheumatoid arthritis linked with gut bacteria imbalance

New research suggests that bacterial imbalances in the gut #microbiome may play a role in the development of #rheumatoidarthritis. The preclinical study found damage to the gut lining directly correlates with joint #inflammation & #arthritis severity New research led by a team from University College London is suggesting bacterial imbalances in the gut microbiome may play a major role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis. The preclinical study found damage to the gut li

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