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Welcome to Mostly Microbes and Infectious Diseases. David Ojcius posts newspaper and journal articles in the broad field of microbiology.

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The world’s first anti-vaccination movement spread fears of half-cow babies

In the early 19th century, British people finally had access to the first vaccine in history, against #smallpox. Many Britons were skeptical of the vaccine & unfounded side effects, leading to the world’s first anti-vaccination movement. #vaccines #vaccineswork #antivaxx In the early 19th century, British people finally had access to the first vaccine in history, one that promised to protect them from smallpox, among the deadliest diseases of the era. Many Britons were skep

France first big EU nation to start widespread booster jabs

#France #Europe #COVID #Vaccines #coronavirus France on Wednesday started administering booster shots of #COVID19 #vaccine to people over 65 and those with underlying health conditions as the #DeltaVariant spreads in the country. France is the first big EU country to introduce widespread booster shots, and several other European countries are expected to follow suit. Many countries are still struggling to administer first doses of COVID-19 vaccines and the World Health Organ

A study describes a systems-based analysis of immune responses to vaccination with the COVID vaccine

Systems vaccinology of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in humans Abstract The emergency use authorization of two #mRNA #vaccines against #COVID19 in less than a year since the emergence of #SARSCoV2 represents a landmark in vaccinology1,2. Yet, how mRNA vaccines stimulate the immune system to elicit protective immune responses is unknown. Here we used a systems vaccinology approach to comprehensively profile the innate and adaptive immune responses of 56 healthy volunteers vaccinat

Novavax’s coronavirus vaccine is 90 percent effective, study finds

#Novavax #coronavirus #COVID19 #COVIDVaccines #COVIDVaccine #Vaccines The vaccine is one of six the U.S. bet on but is likely to have its biggest impact globally Novavax, a Maryland biotechnology company that endured delays in developing a coronavirus vaccine, revealed results Monday showing that the world is close to having another shot that prevents illness and death, stops virus variants — and proves easy to store. The two-shot regimen was 90 percent effective at preventin

The indirect effect of mRNA-based Covid vaccination on unvaccinated household members

#COVID #COVIDvaccine #COVID19 #vaccines Abstract This paper studies the direct and indirect effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccines among vaccinated healthcare workers and their unvaccinated adult household members in a mass vaccine program in Finland. Methods We used national databases that record all polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and mRNA-based (BNT162b2 by Pfizer-BioNTech or mRNA-1273 by Moderna) vaccine doses administered in Finland since the

Drop in childhood vaccinations during pandemic may raise risk of other outbreaks when schools reopen

#measles #COVID19 #education #coronavirus #MMR #school #vaccines Routine childhood vaccinations dropped dramatically during the early months of the pandemic, and although those began rebounding last summer, many children and adolescents are still behind on shots, according to a federal health report released Thursday. That lag might pose “a serious public health threat” of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable illnesses such as measles and whooping cough that have the potential t

We’ll Probably Need Booster Shots for Covid-19. But When? And Which Ones?

#COVID19 #coronavirus #vaccines #COVIDVaccine Although many scientists estimate that the COVID19 vaccines authorized in the US will last at least a year, no one knows for sure. It’s also unclear whether emerging variants of the coronavirus will change our vaccination needs. As the nation edges closer to President Biden’s goal of a 70 percent vaccination rate, many people are beginning to wonder how long their protection will last. For now, scientists are asking a lot of quest

Luring bacteria into an evolutionary trap to reduce treatment resistance

#immunology #Salmonella #vaccines #evolution #microbiology Researchers succeeded in developing an oral vaccine against Salmonella that induces IgA in the gut, & instead of trying to outright kill intestinal bacteria, guides the evolution of attenuated Salmonella variants. Researchers at ETH Zurich and the University of Basel have developed a vaccine that protects animals from Salmonella. These bacteria often escape the effects of vaccination by genetically modifying their pro

US gov't outlines plan for how the US would distribute an initial 25 million doses around the world

#COVID19 #COVIDvaccine #vaccines #coronavirus The US government outlines plan to send 25 million #COVID19 shots to the world. The US is also releasing some vaccine makers from their obligations to prioritize supplying the US before others. The White House, besieged with requests from other nations to share excess doses of coronavirus vaccine, on Thursday announced it will distribute an initial 25 million doses this month across a “wide range of countries” within Latin America

Microbiota Are “Crucial Factors” Affecting Immune Responses to Vaccinations

#microbiota #microbiome #vaccine #vaccines #immunology Vaccine efficacy link to microbiota, studies show. Varying immune response to vaccinations could be countered with microbiota-targeted interventions helping infants, older people and others to take full advantage of the benefits of effective vaccines, Australian and US experts say. A comprehensive review in Nature Reviews Immunology concludes that evidence is mounting in clinical trials and other studies that the composit

After COVID-19 successes, researchers push to develop mRNA vaccines for other diseases

#mRNA #COVID19 #coronavirus #vaccines #COVIDvaccine #cancer mRNA vaccines are now in the limelight as a key tool for tackling COVID-19, but the technology was originally developed for other diseases, such as cancer, that researchers are now hoping to treat. When the broad range of vaccines against COVID-19 were being tested in clinical trials, only a few experts expected the unproven technology of mRNA to be the star. Within 10 months, mRNA vaccines were both the first to be

NIH launches clinical trial of universal influenza vaccine candidate

#flu #influenza #fluseason #fluvacccine #vaccines A first-in-human, Phase 1 trial assessing the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational nanoparticle influenza vaccine designed to provide long-lasting protection against multiple flu virus strains has begun at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Healthy participants 18 to 50 years old will receive either a licensed seasonal influenza vaccine or the experimental vaccine, FluMos-v1. Sc

Can I Ask Co-Workers if They’ve Had the Covid Vaccine?

#COVIDVaccine #COVID19 #coronavirus #vaccines #publichealth #ethics The magazine’s Ethicist columnist on why asking about vaccine status isn’t a question of etiquette but of public health. My employer, a large university, recently instructed us in an email titled “Vaccine Etiquette” not to ask fellow employees if they are vaccinated. I feel I have an interest in knowing this information for two reasons: First, the C.D.C. offers different guidelines for the vaccinated and unva

Immunoinformatics for predicting potential B-cell and T-cell epitopes for Covid vaccines

#COVID19 #COVIDvaccine #coronavirus #vaccines #SARSCoV2 #immunology Background The increase in global mortality rates from SARS-COV2 infection has been alarming thereby necessitating the continual search for viable therapeutic interventions. Due to minimal microbial components, subunit (peptide-based) vaccines have demonstrated improved efficacies in stimulating immunogenic responses by host B- and T-cells. Materials and methods Integrative immunoinformatics algorithms were u

The unseen covid-19 risk for unvaccinated people

#COVID19 #coronavirus #vaccines #COVIDvaccine As more people in the US receive vaccines, covid-19 cases are occurring mostly in the increasingly narrow slice of the unprotected population. With the adjustment for vaccination, the national death rate is roughly the same as it was two months ago & is barely inching down. Read more at:

Yes, we’ll probably need coronavirus booster shots. But which one?

#coronavirus #COVID19 #COVIDvaccine #vaccine #vaccines Scientists expand efforts to determine when COVID19 vaccine booster shots will be needed. Relief of being vaccinated against the coronavirus is being replaced by a new sorry: will immunity last, & how will new virus variants affect vaccine protection? U.S. scientists are expanding efforts to evaluate when fully vaccinated people will need booster shots — and, if so, whether people can switch brands — in the latest chapter

Fighting COVID-19: A quick review of diagnoses, therapies, and vaccines

#COVID19 #coronavirus #vaccine #vaccines #COVIDvaccines #SARSCoV2 The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has infected more than 22 million individuals and resulted in over 780,000 deaths globally. The rapid spread of the virus and the precipitously increasing numbers of cases necessitate the urgent development of accurate diagnostic methods, effective treatments, and vaccines. Here, we review the progress of developing diag

Integrative immunoinformatics for predicting B-cell and T-cell epitopes for vaccines against COVID

#COVID19 #coronavirus #vaccines #COVIDvaccine #immunology Background The increase in global mortality rates from SARS-COV2 (COVID-19) infection has been alarming thereby necessitating the continual search for viable therapeutic interventions. Due to minimal microbial components, subunit (peptide-based) vaccines have demonstrated improved efficacies in stimulating immunogenic responses by host B- and T-cells. Materials and Methods Integrative immunoinformatics algorithms were

New vaccine could protect against all coronaviruses, could prevent future pandemics

#COVID19 #COVIDvaccines #vaccines Duke researchers have created a vaccine with the potential to protect against all forms of #coronavirus that move from animals to humans, now and in the future. The vaccine works by attacking a genetic sequence common to all forms of coronavirus that enables them to bind to human cells. The new vaccine has been 100% effective in non-human tests. Read more at:

What Do New Mask Rules Mean for Company Vaccine Mandates?

#masks #vaccines #COVID19 #coronavirus #vaccination The rules for keeping workers safe can be difficult to navigate. Can employers require employees to be vaccinated? And other questions answered, as we prepare ourselves for in-person work. For executives planning to reopen offices in the coming months, Thursday was a doozy of a news day: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention unexpectedly issued new mask rules, and Delta became the first major U.S. company to requir

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