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MOSTLY MICROBES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Welcome to Mostly Microbes and Infectious Diseases. David Ojcius posts newspaper and journal articles in the broad field of microbiology.

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Fasting as key tone for COVID immunity

#SARSCoV2-induced #anorexia triggers systemic metabolic alterations. A new study shows that the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) improves COVID19 disease outcomes. Further, BHB metabolically and functionally reprograms CD4+ T cells, highlighting immunometabolic tuning of immunity in #COVID19. #Fasting #diet #nutrition #immunology Infection-induced anorexia is an evolutionarily conserved sickness behaviour that can mediate protective or detrimental immune functions1. Fastin

How your body clock drives your immune system

The body's internal clock affects the immune system in ways scientists in the burgeoning field of #circadian #immunology are beginning to unwind. Why it matters: Leveraging the circadian clock's effects on the immune system could help to improve the effectiveness of some treatments for a range of diseases and conditions, a new book and scientific review suggest. How it works: The body's central clock, or suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is a collection of about 20,000 neurons i

What triggers severe COVID? Infected immune cells hold clues

Two studies show that immune cells infected with #SARSCoV2 can stimulate a large inflammatory response via #inflammasome activation. In mice, drugs that inhibit inflammasomes save mice from severe #COVID19 pathology. #inflammation #immunology #coronavirus Immune cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 can trigger a massive inflammatory response that contributes to severe COVID-19, suggest two papers — one published today in Nature, and a preprint posted online on 1 April. Since the ea

How the Immune System Senses Danger: Immunology Researcher David Ojcius Explains

It’s no secret that we rely on our immune systems to fight off common infections. But what you might not know is that the immune system is highly evolved and can even sense danger, explains David Ojcius, the Assistant Dean of Research at University of the Pacific in San Francisco, California. #immunology #microbiology #innateimmunity Read more at: https://davidojcius.com/how-the-immune-system-senses-danger-immunology-researcher-david-ojcius-explains/

Immunology Research Professor David Ojcius Explains the Effects of Aging on Our Immune System

If you feel like you’re slowing down a bit as you age, you’re not alone. Many of our systems (including our brain) tend to taper off as we get older and the immune system is no exception, says David Ojcius, an expert in #immunology research at the University of the Pacific in San Francisco, California. #aging Read more at: https://davidojcius.com/immunology-research-professor-david-ojcius-explains-the-effects-of-aging-on-our-immune-system/

David Ojcius -- on Lifelong Learning as a Researcher

#microbiology #LifelongLearning #education #research #biophysics #Pacific #immunology Interview at Thrive Global What do you love most about the industry you are in? The industry I’m in is actually two in one: teaching and research. I love teaching and interacting with students. In many ways I learn as I teach them. I love their enthusiasm and their optimism. The thing about research is you are a student for life. You constantly have to learn new skills. It requires you to be

The role of endocytic trafficking in antigen T cell receptor activation

This review article summarizes the molecular mechanisms of T cell receptor (TCR) #endocytosis and recycling, both in steady state and after T cell activation. It also discusses the experimental evidence in favor of endosomal TCR signaling and its possible consequences for T cell activation. #immunology #biology Abstract Antigen T cell receptors (TCR) recognize antigenic peptides displayed by the major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) and play a critical role in T cell activa

The Moderna vaccine makes more antibodies than Pfizer's. Does it matter?

#coronavirus #SARSCoV2 #immunity #immunology #COVID19 The Moderna vaccine makes more antibodies than Pfizer's. Does it matter? Antibodies are just one component of immunity. Along with shorter-lasting antibodies, COVID-19 vaccines also trigger long-term memory in the immune system. Ten months ago, the results of large clinical trials appeared almost too good to be true: Two messenger RNA vaccines reduced symptomatic COVID-19 cases by more than 90% in almost every group that g

Prior exposure to common cold coronaviruses enhances immune response to SARS-CoV-2

Researchers show that cross-reactive CD4+ T cells found in people previously exposed to common cold coronaviruses enhance the body's immune response to #SARSCoV2, both during natural infection & following vaccination. #COVID19 #coronavirus #immunology #immunity Researchers from Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin, the Berlin Institute of Health at Charité (BIH) and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG) have shown that certain immune cells, which are found

Scaling the tips of the ALPS

by Frédéric Rieux-Laucat, Jean M. Kanellopoulos, David M. Ojcius #apoptosis #immunology #FAS #autoimmunity This special issue contains four review articles that describe advances in analysis of mutations responsible for the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). This disease is triggered by a family of mutations in genes involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway such as FAS, FASL and CASP10. Advances in sequencing technology has enabled extended genetic testing of

Human Blood Harbors Cell-Free Microbial DNA

After controlling for high levels of bacterial contamination in their lab and reagents, researchers detect microbial genetic material in plasma samples from healthy people and #cancer patients. #microbiology #immunology #DNA Most biomarkers that clinicians use to diagnose cancer are human. But growing evidence for a link between the microbiome and malignancy presents an opportunity to look at the presence of microbial DNA as a way to identify and possibly predict disease. In

New impact factor for Biomedical Journal is now 4.91 !!

The new (2020) #impactfactor for Biomedical Journal is 4.91. The journal continues to improve. We thank all authors and editors for your contributions! #biomedical #biology #medicine #immunology #cellbiology #development #biochemistry #metabolism #surgery https://www.journals.elsevier.com/biomedical-journal#/

Purinergic signaling: a new front-line determinant of resistance and susceptibility in leishmaniasis

#immunology #innateimmunity #Leishmania Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease that causes several clinical manifestations. Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause this disease. Spread across five continents, leishmaniasis is a particular public health problem in developing countries. Leishmania infects phagocytic cells such as macrophages, where it induces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release at the time of infection. ATP activates purinergic receptors in the cell mem

The genetic landscape of the FAS pathway deficiencies

#genetics #autoimmunedisease #autoimmunity #immunology #apoptosis Dysfunction of the FAS-FASLG pathway causes a lymphoproliferative disorder with autoimmunity called Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) mainly caused by FAS mutations. The goal of this review is to describe the genetic bases of the #autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and to underline their genetic complexity with the contribution of both germline and somatic events accounting for the variable cl

Cause or effect? The spatial organization of pathogens and the gut microbiota in disease

#microbiota #microbiome #immunology #microbiology The human gut hosts a dense and diverse microbial community, spatially organized by multiple scales of structure. Here, we review how microbial organization differs between health and disease. We describe how changes in spatial organization may induce alterations in gut homeostasis, concluding with a future outlook to reveal causality. Free article. Read more at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1286457921000

Multivalent antibodies show high potency against SARS-CoV-2 in new study

#SARSCoV2 #antibodies #immunology #coronavirus #COVID19 Since the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), effective and safe antivirals are being sought with increasing urgency. One promising pathway has been the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) like palivizumab, or REGN-EB3, for respiratory syncytial virus or Ebola virus prevention and treatment, respectively. Against the curren

Special Issue Call for Papers: Advances in Microbial Pathogenesis

#microbiology #pathogenesis #immunology #immunity #bacteria #virus #virology #mycology #infectiousdisease #genetics #microbiota The editors of Microbial Pathogenesis (YMPAT), Current Research in Microbial Sciences (CRMICR) and Current Research in Immunology (CRIMMU) are joining to organize a special collection called Advances in Microbial Pathogenesis and Host Immunity. How to efficiently combat infectious agents, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa is now more im

Luring bacteria into an evolutionary trap to reduce treatment resistance

#immunology #Salmonella #vaccines #evolution #microbiology Researchers succeeded in developing an oral vaccine against Salmonella that induces IgA in the gut, & instead of trying to outright kill intestinal bacteria, guides the evolution of attenuated Salmonella variants. Researchers at ETH Zurich and the University of Basel have developed a vaccine that protects animals from Salmonella. These bacteria often escape the effects of vaccination by genetically modifying their pro

Gene protection for COVID-19 identified

#COVID19 #immunology #coronavirus #MHC #HLA The first evidence of a genetic link explaining why some people who catch COVID-19 don't become sick has been discovered. A scientific and medical team led by Newcastle University, UK, have demonstrated that the gene, HLA-DRB1*04:01, is found three times as often in people who are asymptomatic. This suggests that people with this gene have some level of protection from severe COVID. The study, funded by Innovate UK, the UK's innovat

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