Involvement of strigolactone hormone in root development, influence and interaction with mycorrhizal fungi in plants
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant symbiosis is the old, fascinating and beneficial relation that exist on earth for the plants. In this review, we have elaborated that the strigolactones (SLs) are released from the roots and function with root parasite, seeds and symbiotic AMF as contact chemicals. They are transported through the xylem in the plants and can regulate plant architecture, seed germination, nodule formation, increase the primary root length, influence the root hairs and physiological reactions to non-living agents by regulating their metabolism. SLs first evolved in ancient plant lineages as regulators of the basic production processes and then took a new role to maintain the growing biological complexities of terrestrial plant. SLs belongs to a diversified category of butenolide‐bearing plant hormones related to various processes of agricultural concern. SLs also arouses the development of spores, the divergence and enlargement of hyphae of AMF, metabolism of mitochondria, reprogramming of transcription process, and generation of chitin oligosaccharides which further stimulate the early response of symbiosis in the host plant, results from better communication in plant and ability of coexistence with these fungi. The required nutrients are transferred from the roots to the shoots, which affect the physiological, biochemical, and morphological characteristics of the plant. On the other hand, the plant provides organic carbon in the form of sugars and lipids to the fungi, which they use as a source of energy and for carried out different anabolic pathways. SLs also lead to alteration in the dynamic and structure of actin in the root region as well as changes the auxin's transporter localization in the plasma membrane. Thus, this study reveals the functions that SLs play in the growth of roots, as well as their effect and interaction with AMF that promote plant growth.
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