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Review on association of fungi with development and progression of carcinogenesis in the human body

Highlights •Long-term #Candida infection contributes to #oralcancer development.

Candida species contribute to tumor induction along the gastrointestinal tract through production of carcinogenic nitrosamines.

•Voriconazole is involved in the development of squamous cell carcinoma in lung transplant patients.

Abstract The role and impact of commensal and pathogenic fungi in different parts of the human body are being increasingly appreciated, unveiling the importance of such microorganisms in human health. A key function is the involvement of the mycobiota in cross-kingdom interactions within the microbiome. Any disturbance in the functionality of the microbiota could alter metabolic reactions, have a negative impact on homeostasis or induce diseases. The association of fungi with cancer development is the focus of this review. Several studies have reported direct or indirect involvement of fungal pathogens and mycobiome dysbiosis in induction of carcinogenesis. Most studies focused on cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. However, researchers are now investigating other organs, such as the skin, where the significant results obtained confirm the involvement of fungal pathogens and administration of antifungal drugs in development of cancer. This review gives an overview of the different organs affected and describes the mechanisms used by these eukaryotes or antifungals to induce oncogenesis.

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