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MOSTLY MICROBES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Welcome to Mostly Microbes and Infectious Diseases. David Ojcius posts newspaper and journal articles in the broad field of microbiology.

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Gut barrier disruption and chronic disease

Highlights Maintenance of gut barrier integrity is indispensable for health as the #gut barrier protects the host against gut microbes, food antigens, and toxins. Many factors such as enteric #infection, #antibiotics, low-fiber diets, #circadian rhythm disruption, and psychological #stress can affect gut barrier integrity and lead to systemic, low-grade #inflammation due to translocation of bacteria and their components. While the body can resist transient gut barrier disrupt

How Penicillin Kills Bacteria

Researchers discovered that β-lactam #antibiotics kill #MRSA by creating holes in the cell wall which enlarge as the cell grows, eventually killing the bacteria. An international team of researchers led by the University of Sheffield discovered that β-lactam antibiotics kill MRSA (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus) by creating holes in the cell wall which enlarge as the cell grows, eventually killing the bacteria. The growth of these holes leads to failure of the cell wall and

Antibiotic Resistance Found Deep in Forests of Scandinavia

A DNA analysis of wild brown bear teeth shows that the #AntibioticResistance threat has spread to remote areas of Sweden. Antibiotic resistance is described as “one of the biggest threats to global health, food security and development today” by the World Health Organization. It has spread to humans around the globe—and even wildlife deep in the forest. Scientists says this medical condition—which occurs when bacteria changes in response to the medicines used to treat infecti

Microbial study reveals extended lifespan of starved bacteria

Study reveals extended lifespan of starved bacteria. "How bacteria survive long periods of energy limitation is relevant to understanding chronic infections in humans and other hosts, and is related to how some pathogens tolerate drugs like #antibiotics." #microbiology #bacteriology #AntiobiticResistance A study of microbial populations under a prolonged period of starvation by Indiana University professor Jay T. Lennon and his laboratory could help researchers answer questio

Antibiotics in Early Life Could Lead to Brain Disorders

Exposure to #antibiotics in utero or after birth could lead to brain disorders in later childhood, says Rutgers researcher. #microbiome #microbiota Antibiotic exposure early in life could alter human brain development in areas responsible for cognitive and emotional functions, according to a Rutgers researcher. The laboratory study, published in the journal iScience, suggests that penicillin changes the microbiome — the trillions of beneficial microorganisms that live in and

EptA protein and correlation with pmrC gene in polymyxin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Nowadays, clinical and scientific interest in #antibiotics, as polymyxin, has increased due to the large number of reports of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria, as #Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The aim of this study was to investigate a related group of proteins for resistance to polymyxins, encoded by P. aeruginosa genome, through in silico analysis. The mobilized colistin resistance 1 (MCR1) protein from Escherichia coli was used for comparison. Similar sequences to the prot

Hydrogen sulfide critical to innate ability of bacteria to survive antibiotics

#antibiotics #antibiotictolerance #antibioticresistance The signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a critical role in antibiotic tolerance, the innate ability of bacteria to survive normally lethal levels of antibiotics, a new study finds. Published online in the journal Science on June 11, the study revolves around tolerance, wherein bacteria in general have evolved to use common defense systems to resist antibiotics. Tolerance differs from antibiotic resistance, wh

Global travelers pick up numerous genes that promote microbial resistance

#antibiotics #antibioticresistance #microbiome #microbiota Such genes have potential to spread when travelers return home Carried like stowaways in the guts of international travelers, new and potentially deadly strains of antimicrobial resistant superbugs may be coming to a community near you, suggests new research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. "Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, we knew that international travel was contributing to the rapid gl

Antibiotics Can Treat Human Diseases Like Cancer – Not Just Bacterial Infections

#antibiotics #ribosomes #molecularbiology #cancer According to researchers at the University of Illinois Chicago, the antibiotics used to treat common bacterial infections, like pneumonia and sinusitis, may also be used to treat human diseases, like cancer. Theoretically, at least. As outlined in a new Nature Communications study, the UIC College of Pharmacy team has shown in laboratory experiments that eukaryotic ribosomes can be modified to respond to antibiotics in the sam

Environmental antibiotics and resistance genes as emerging contaminants

#bioremediation #environment #microbiology #antibiotics #AntibioticResistance In developing countries, the use of antibiotics has helped to reduce the mortality rate by minimizing the deaths caused by pathogenic infections, but the costs of antibiotic contamination remain a major concern. Antibiotics are released into the environment, creating a complicated environmental problem. Antibiotics are used in human, livestock and agriculture, contributing to its escalation in the e

Environmental antibiotics and resistance genes as emerging contaminants

#AntibioticResistance #bioremediation #environment #antibiotics In developing countries, the use of #antibiotics has helped to reduce the mortality rate by minimizing the deaths caused by pathogenic infections, but the costs of antibiotic contamination remain a major concern. Antibiotics are released into the environment, creating a complicated environmental problem. Antibiotics are used in human, livestock and agriculture, contributing to its escalation in the environment. E

'Superbugs' kill more than 35K Americans each year. Doctors to blame?

#AntibioticResistance #antibiotics As the medical community develops treatments to combat the coronavirus, another deadly enemy continues to lurk in hospitals across the country: antibiotic-resistant infections. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention calls antibiotic resistance one of the “biggest public health challenges of our time,” and a new study suggests doctors may be partially to blame for its prevalence. The study found more than half of antibiotics prescribe

Bacteria Have Been Seen Literally Changing Shape to Avoid Antibiotics

Scientists discover a simple new way bacteria (Caulobacter crescentus) avoid #antibiotics in the human body - by changing shape. Upon antibiotic removal, cells recover their original forms. #antibioticresistance https://www.sciencealert.com/bacteria-can-change-shape-to-help-them-become-more-resillient-to-antibiotics

When a Virus Is the Cure

In the past five years, bacteriophage research has accelerated, with a proliferation of publications, conferences, and pharmaceutical-company investment. This enthusiasm reflects the ever-growing threat of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and a dearth of new antibiotics available to fight them. #bacteriophage #phage #microbiology #antibiotics #antibioticresistance https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2020/12/21/when-a-virus-is-the-cure

Paper-Based Device Rapidly Detects Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

Researchers developed a device that can rapidly detect certain types of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The device uses paper as a substrate, & allows a user to rapidly test the effects of specific antibiotics on patient bacterial samples. #antibioticresistance #antibiotics https://www.medgadget.com/2020/12/paper-based-device-rapidly-detects-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria.html

The book reopened on infectious diseases

Emerging infectious diseases represent a major challenge to human health worldwide. The risk of evolving new infectious pathogens has been intensifying due to urbanization, demographic changes, air travel, inappropriate use of antibiotics, and climate change. These pathogens can affect humans from urban centers to the remotest corners of the globe. Far from being a scourge of the past, infectious diseases are relevant for the world today. #microbes #infection #emergingpathoge

Gut microbes: The key to normal sleep

Researchers show that the gut #microbiota are depleted by #antibiotics, mice cannot make serotonin from tryptophan they consume, which affects #sleep. The mice were also deficient in vitamin B6 metabolites, which accelerate production of the neurotransmitters serotonin & dopamine. #microbiome https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-11-gut-microbes-key.html

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