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MOSTLY MICROBES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Welcome to Mostly Microbes and Infectious Diseases. David Ojcius posts newspaper and journal articles in the broad field of microbiology.

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How the Immune System Senses Danger: Immunology Researcher David Ojcius Explains

It’s no secret that we rely on our immune systems to fight off common infections. But what you might not know is that the immune system is highly evolved and can even sense danger, explains David Ojcius, the Assistant Dean of Research at University of the Pacific in San Francisco, California. #immunology #microbiology #innateimmunity Read more at: https://davidojcius.com/how-the-immune-system-senses-danger-immunology-researcher-david-ojcius-explains/

Purinergic signaling: a new front-line determinant of resistance and susceptibility in leishmaniasis

#immunology #innateimmunity #Leishmania Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease that causes several clinical manifestations. Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause this disease. Spread across five continents, leishmaniasis is a particular public health problem in developing countries. Leishmania infects phagocytic cells such as macrophages, where it induces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release at the time of infection. ATP activates purinergic receptors in the cell mem

Could nasal nitric oxide help to mitigate the severity of COVID19 ?

#COVID19 #innateimmunity #breathing #holistic #holistichealth The nasal cavity and turbinates play important physiological functions by filtering, warming and humidifying inhaled air. Paranasal sinuses continually produce nitric oxide (NO), a reactive oxygen species that diffuses to the bronchi and lungs to produce bronchodilatory and vasodilatory effects. Studies indicate that NO may also help to reduce respiratory tract infection by inactivating viruses and inhibiting their

Researchers discover drug that blocks multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in mice

#COVID19 #coronavirus #SARSCoV2 #immunology #innateimmunity The drug diABZI—which activates the body's innate immune response—was highly effective in preventing severe COVID-19 in mice that were infected with SARS-CoV-2, according to scientists in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The findings, published this month in Science Immunology, suggest that diABZI could also treat other respiratory coronaviruses. "Few drugs have been identified as ga

Neither B cell nor T cell: innate lymphoid cells - by Jean Kanellopoulos and David Ojcius

#immunology #innateimmunity #ILC This special issue contains four review articles that analyze the development and biology of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are the most recently-discovered group of innate immune cells. This unique group of lymphoid cells lacks the RAG gene and consequently does not express B cell nor T cell antigen-specific receptors. They are abundant at mucosal surfaces, where they play a role in immunity and homeostasis. The ILCs are the focus of int

The role of respiratory epithelium in host defence against influenza virus infection

#flu #influenza #immunology #innateimmunity The respiratory epithelium is the major interface between the environment and the host. Sophisticated barrier, sensing, anti-microbial and immune regulatory mechanisms have evolved to help maintain homeostasis and to defend the lung against foreign substances and pathogens. During influenza virus infection, these specialised structural cells and populations of resident immune cells come together to mount the first response to the vi

Enzymes protect the skin by ignoring bacteria and viruses

#immunology #microbiology #innateimmunity The human body is constantly exposed to various environmental actors, from viruses to bacteria to fungi, but most of these microbial organisms provoke little or no response from our skin, which is charged with monitoring and protecting from external dangers. Until now, researchers weren't quite sure how that happened—and why our skin wasn't constantly alarmed and inflamed. In a study published May 21, 2021 in Science Immunology, scien

Structural and Functional Features of the P2X4 Receptor: An Immunological Perspective

by Jean Kanellopoulos, Cássio Luiz Coutinho Almeida-da-Silva, Sirje Rüütel Boudinot and David Ojcius #immunology #innateimmunity #inflammation #inflammasome #P2X4 #purinergic Extracellular nucleotides are important mediators of activation, triggering various responses through plasma membrane P2 and P1 receptors. P2 receptors are further subdivided into ionotropic P2X receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. P2X4 is an ATP-gated cation channel broadly expressed in most t

Involvement of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in immune response against oral pathogens

#immunology #oralhealth #innateimmunity #inflammation #inflammasome #dental #dentistry We examined the involvement of the P2 × 7 receptor and the canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in the control of single-species or dual-species infection by the periodontal bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in cells and mice. Stimulation of the P2 × 7 receptor leads to activation of the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome and activation of caspase-1, which leads to

Neither B cell nor T cell: The unique group of innate lymphoid cells

by Jean Kanellopoulos and David Ojcius #immunology #ILC #innateimmunity #immunity This free special issue contains 4 review articles that analyze the development & biology of innate lymphoid cells (#ILC) - the most recently-discovered group of innate immune cells. Free special issue. Read more at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2319417021000329

Guards! Guards! How innate lymphoid cells ensure local law and order

#ILC #immunology #innateimmunity This free special issue of the Biomedical Journal is dedicated to the latest official recruits in the field of immunology: innate lymphoid cells, the tissue-resident sentinels and first responders to damage or invasion. Subsequently, we consider extracellular vesicle release during bacterial infection, how immunomodulation can avoid compromising Mycobacterium tuberculosis clearance, and how innate immunity jeopardises the organism during rheum

Jean Kanellopoulos and David Ojcius: Neither B cell nor T cell – the innate lymphoid cells

#immunology #innateimmunity #ILC This free special issue contains four review articles that analyze the development and biology of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are the most recently-discovered group of innate immune cells. This unique group of lymphoid cells lacks the RAG gene and consequently does not express B cell nor T cell antigen-specific receptors. They are abundant at mucosal surfaces, where they play a role in immunity and homeostasis. The ILCs are the focus o

Structural and Functional Features of the P2X4 Receptor: An Immunological Perspective

#immunology #purinergic #innateimmunity Extracellular nucleotides are important mediators of activation, triggering various responses through plasma membrane P2 and P1 receptors. P2 receptors are further subdivided into ionotropic P2X receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. P2X4 is an ATP-gated cation channel broadly expressed in most tissues of the body. Within the P2X family, P2X4 has a unique subcellular distribution, being preferentially localized in lysosomes. In

Tropical ginger treatment for blocking inflammation

#ginger #inflammation #immunology #innateimmunity #inflammasome Researchers found that 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), which comes from tropical ginger, attenuates mitochondrial damage by decreasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) & blocking activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Many natural compounds have various anti-inflammatory and other beneficial properties that humans have been utilizing for medicinal purposes for hundreds of years. However, the specific

Guards! Guards! How innate lymphoid cells ensure local law and order

#immunology #innateimmunity This special issue of the Biomedical Journal is dedicated to the latest official recruits in the field of immunology: innate lymphoid cells, the tissue-resident sentinels and first responders to damage or invasion. Subsequently, we consider extracellular vesicle release during bacterial infection, how immunomodulation can avoid compromising M. tuberculosis clearance, and how innate immunity jeopardises the organism during rheumatoid arthritis. More

Structural and Functional Features of the P2X4 Receptor: An Immunological Perspective

#immunology #innateimmunity #biochemistry #physiology Extracellular nucleotides are important mediators of activation, triggering various responses through plasma membrane P2 and P1 receptors. P2 receptors are further subdivided into ionotropic P2X receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. P2X4 is an ATP-gated cation channel broadly expressed in most tissues of the body. Within the P2X family, P2X4 has a unique subcellular distribution, being preferentially localized in

Neither B cell nor T cell – the unique group of innate lymphoid cells

#immunology #innateimmunity This special issue of Biomedical Journal contains four review articles that analyze the development and biology of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are the most recently-discovered subsets of innate immune cells. This unique group of lymphoid cells lacks the RAG gene and consequently does not express B cell nor T cell antigen-specific receptors. They are abundant at mucosal surfaces, where they play a role in immunity and homeostasis. The ILCs a

Involvement of inflammasomes in the immune response against infection by the periodontal bacteria

#immunology #inflammation #innateimmunity #oralhealth #dental #dentistry We examined the involvement of the P2 × 7 receptor and the canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in the control of single-species or dual-species infection by the periodontal bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in cells and mice. Stimulation of the P2 × 7 receptor leads to activation of the canonical NLRP3 inflammasome and activation of caspase-1, which leads to cleavage of p

Structural and Functional Features of the P2X4 Receptor: An Immunological Perspective

#immunology #innateimmunity Extracellular nucleotides are important mediators of activation, triggering various responses through plasma membrane P2 and P1 receptors. P2 receptors are further subdivided into ionotropic P2X receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. P2X4 is an ATP-gated cation channel broadly expressed in most tissues of the body. Within the P2X family, P2X4 has a unique subcellular distribution, being preferentially localized in lysosomes. In these organe

Structural and Functional Features of the P2X4 Receptor: An Immunological Perspective

#immunology #innateimmunity Extracellular nucleotides are important mediators of activation, triggering various responses through plasma membrane P2 and P1 receptors. P2 receptors are further subdivided into ionotropic P2X receptors and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors. P2X4 is an ATP-gated cation channel broadly expressed in most tissues of the body. Within the P2X family, P2X4 has a unique subcellular distribution, being preferentially localized in lysosomes. In these organe

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